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Women’s College Hospital is a teaching hospital in downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is located at the north end of Hospital Row, a section of University Avenue where several major hospitals are located. It currently functions as an independent ambulatory care hospital. The Chief of Staff is Dr. Sheila Laredo and the physician-in-chief is Dr. Gillian Hawker.

Women’s College Hospital maintains a focus on women’s health, research in women’s health, and ambulatory care. It was recognized as the only collaborating centre in women’s health the Western Hemisphere designated by the World Health Organization.

Women’s College Hospital began as Woman’s Medical College in 1883. On June 13, 1883, Dr. Emily Stowe (1831–1903) the first Canadian woman licensed to practice medicine in Canada – led a group of her supporters to a meeting at the Toronto Women’s Suffrage Club, stating “that medical education for women is a recognized necessity, and consequently facilities for such instruction should be provided.” The motion was seconded adding “that the establishment of such a school was a public necessity and in the interests of the community.”

Less than six months after this meeting, on October 1, 1883, Toronto Mayor A.R. Boswell formally opened Woman’s Medical College.

In 1895, the College amalgamated with its sister institution in Kingston, Ontario, and changed its name to the Ontario Medical College for Women. A practical experience clinic called the Dispensary was opened in Toronto in 1898. The clinic allowed female patients to obtain the services of women doctors in a field dominated by men. At the time, services were provided regardless of the patient’s ability to pay and medical advice was always free.

Women’s College Hospital moved to its current location in Toronto in 1935, and became a teaching hospital affiliated with the University of Toronto in 1961. Later, the hospital merged with Sunnybrook Hospital and the Orthopedic and Arthritic Hospital in 1998 under the provisions of Ontario Bill 51, becoming Sunnybrook and Women’s College Health Sciences Centre. In 2006, they de-amalgamated and Women’s College Hospital reverted to its original name. During the SARS outbreak of 2003, while still part of the erstwhile “Sunnybrook and Women’s College Health Sciences Centre”, the Women’s College site housed the first ambulatory SARS clinic in Canada. Meanwhile the Sunnybrook site housed both the first in-patient SARS unit and Intensive Care Unit for SARS in Canada.

Women’s College Hospital collaborated in the invention of the simplified Pap test, opened Ontario’s first regional Sexual Assault Care Centre and was the first hospital in the province to use mammography as a diagnostic tool to detect breast cancer. As of 2012, it is Ontario’s first and only independent ambulatory care centre. Ambulatory care refers to surgeries, diagnostic procedures and treatments that do not require overnight hospitalization. That means patients can be released within 18 hours, and can recover at home.

Women’s College Hospital is a teaching hospital affiliated with the University of Toronto. Research at the hospital, university and research institute are focused around sex and gender differences in physiology and social roles, which cause women to have different health-care needs than men.

The Women’s College Research Institute (WCRI) is the only one of its kind at a Canadian hospital devoted to women’s health. International researchers study breast cancer, musculoskeletal health, older women’s health and the impact of violence on women’s lives.

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The Université de Sherbrooke is a large university in Quebec, Canada with campuses located in Sherbrooke and Longueuil, a suburb of Montreal approximately 130 km (81 mi) west of Sherbrooke. It is one of two universities, and the only French language university, in the Estrie region of Quebec.

In 2007, the Université de Sherbrooke was home to 35,000 students and a teaching staff of 3,200. In all, it employs 6,400 people. The university has over 100,000 graduates and offers 46 undergraduate, 48 Master’s and 27 doctoral programs. It holds a total of 61 research chairs, among which are the pharmacology, microelectronics, statistical learning, and environment research chairs.

The Université de Sherbrooke was established as a French speaking Catholic university in a region that was predominantly English speaking. Initially there was a religious component to the pedagogical activities, but by the end of the 1960s the number of priests working for the university had greatly diminished. In 1975, the appointment of a layman as Rector marked the end of religious activity in the institution. The Department of Theology is still officially Roman Catholic, alone in Quebec in this regard.

The university offers a variety of bachelors, masters, doctoral and post-doctoral programs as well as various certificates and microprograms.

The Faculty of Theology, Ethics and Philosophy offers Undergraduate level certificate, diploma, Bachelors, Masters and Doctorate degrees in Theology/Theological Studies; Doctorate Theology and Religious Vocations; and Undergraduate level certificate/diploma/Graduate level certificate/diploma Pastoral Studies/Counselling.

The Faculty of Engineering offers courses in the following specialties: Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Biological Engineering and Mechanical Engineering.

Sports teams representing the Université de Sherbrooke are called Le Vert & Or (called The Green and Gold in English).

The university publishes the magazine UdeS, which has a circulation of 85,000 copies. Published three times a year by the Communications Service, this magazine is distributed free to everyone in the central graduate database and to staff as well as friends of the institution. Copies are also distributed in a number of locations in Sherbrooke.

A wide national survey was conducted across Canada in by the Globe and Mail and Maclean’s magazine showed the Université de Sherbrooke as having the highest student satisfaction in 2008.

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Queen’s University at Kingston (commonly shortened to Queen’s University or Queen’s) is a public research university located in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Founded on 16 October 1841 via a royal charter issued by Queen Victoria, the university predates the founding of Canada by 26 years.Queen’s holds more than 1,400 hectares (3,500 acres) of land throughout Ontario and owns Herstmonceux Castle in East Sussex, England.Queen’s is organized into ten undergraduate, graduate and professional faculties and schools.

The Church of Scotland established Queen’s College in 1841 with a royal charter from Queen Victoria. The first classes, intended to prepare students for the ministry, were held 7 March 1842 with 13 students and two professors.Queen’s was the first university west of the maritime provinces to admit women, and to form a student government. In 1883, a women’s college for medical education affiliated with Queen’s University was established. In 1888, Queen’s University began offering extension courses, becoming the first Canadian university to do so.Queen’s was a result of an outgrowth of educational initiatives planned by Presbyterians in the 1830s.

A draft plan for the university was presented at a synod meeting in Kingston in 1839, with a modified bill introduced through the 13th Parliament of Upper Canada during a session in 1840.On 16 October 1841, a royal charter was issued through Queen Victoria. Queen’s resulted from years of effort by Presbyterians of Upper Canada to found a college for the education of ministers in the growing colony and to instruct the youth in various branches of science and literature. They modelled the university after the University of Edinburgh and the University of Glasgow.Classes began on 7 March 1842, in a small wood-frame house on the edge of the city with two professors and 15 students.In 1912, Queen’s secularized and changed to its present legal name.

The university completed the 2011–12 year with revenues of $769.9 million and expenses of $773.3 million, yielding a deficit of $3.4 million. Government grants made up 48 percent of the 2011–12 operating budget. Student fees made up 28 percent of the 2010–11 operating budget.As of 30 April 2012, Queen’s endowment was valued at C$584.4 million.

Queen’s is a publicly funded research university, and a member of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada.The full-time undergraduate programs comprise the majority of the school’s enrolment, made up of 16,339 full-time undergraduate students.In 2009 the two largest programs by enrolment were the social sciences, with 3,286 full-time and part-time students, followed by engineering, with 3,097 full-time and part-time students.The university conferred 3,232 bachelor’s degrees, 153 doctoral degrees, 1,142 master’s degrees, and 721 first professional degrees in 2008–2009.

In Research Infosource’s 2011 ranking of Canada’s 50 top research universities, Queen’s ranked 11th, with sponsored research income of $197.016 million. With an average of $237,900 per faculty member, Queen’s ranked Canada’s sixth most research-intensive university.The federal government is the largest funding source, providing 49.8 percent of Queen’s research budget, primarily through grants. Corporations contribute another 26.3 percent of the research budget.In terms of research performance, High Impact Universities 2010 ranked Queen’s 185th out of 500 universities.The Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT), an organization which evaluates universities based on the performance of scientific papers, ranked Queen’s 272nd.

Queen’s University has a number of athletic facilities open to both their varsity teams as well as to their students. The stadium with the largest seating capacity at Queen’s is Richardson Memorial Stadium. Built in 1971, the stadium seats over 10,000 and is home to the varsity football team.The stadium has also played host for a number of international games including Canada’s second round 2006 FIFA World Cup qualification games and the inaugural match for the Colonial Cup, an international rugby league challenge match.

Other athletic facilities at Queen’s include the Athletic and Recreation Centre, which houses a number of gymnasiums and pools; Tindall Field, a multi-season playing field and jogging track; Nixon Field, home to the school’s rugby teams; and West Campus Fields, which is used by a number of varsity teams and student intramural leagues.

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The Northern Ontario School of Medicine is a medical school in the Canadian province of Ontario, created through a partnership between Laurentian University in Sudbury and Lakehead University in Thunder Bay. Mandated both to educate doctors and to contribute to care in Northern Ontario’s urban, rural and remote communities, the Northern Ontario School of Medicine has campuses in both Sudbury and Thunder Bay.

The school is known for its small class size, its distributed model of education, heavy emphasis on enabling technologies, problem-based and self-directed learning, and early exposure to clinical skills. The school describes its campus as “Northern Ontario”. This is evidenced by the close relationship between the school and various communities and First Nations throughout the region. All students complete a month-long placement in an Aboriginal or Métis community in May of their first year. In second year, they travel to smaller communities for two, month-long placements (one in the fall and the other in the winter). The third year is clerkship and is spent living in one of the medium sized communities for the entire year. The fourth year of studies is completed in Sudbury or Thunder Bay.

Before the creation of NOSM, Northern Ontario had for several years been designated as “underserviced”, meaning that the region’s ratio of medical professionals to the general population was not meeting the standards set by the Ministry of Health. As a result, a multifaceted plan was adopted by the province, including the creation of NOSM and the adoption of special recruitment strategies. A study of medical services in Ontario, released in August 2005, found that for the first time in many years, the region’s level of medical services had improved over the previous year.

Construction on both campuses began in mid-2004, and the buildings were completed in August 2005. NOSM accepted its charter class of 56 students in September of that same year and the school was officially opened by Premier Dalton McGuinty on 13 September 2005. The school received full accreditation from the Committee on Accreditation of Canadian Medical Schools (CACMS) and the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) in February 2009.

A fictionalized version of the school, renamed Boreal Medical School, is the setting of the Canadian television drama series Hard Rock Medical, which debuted on TVOntario and APTN in July 2013.

The Northern Ontario School of Medicine is one of only two medical schools in Canada outside of Quebec (along with University of Ottawa) that does not require an MCAT score to be considered for admission. Furthermore, the only academic prerequisite is a university undergraduate degree with a minimum GPA of 3.0 out of 4.0 (the mean GPA of the 2013/2014 entering class was 3.83[2]). To help further its social accountability mandate, NOSM does take into account where candidates are from and whether they have studied or worked in Northern Ontario or other rural or remote places. For each entering class since the schools inception in 2005, approximately 90-95% were from Northern Ontario.Each year, approximately 2000 applicants compete for the 64 spots in each class (36 at the Sudbury campus and 28 at the Thunder Bay campus). Applicants request their preferred campus at the time of their interview.

The Northern Ontario School of Medicine also operates the Health Sciences Library (HSL), formerly known as the Northern Ontario Virtual Library (NOVL) to northern health-care professionals, and the Health Information Resource Centre (HIRC) to faculty, students and residents. The HSL aims to meet the traditional and expanding information needs of NOSM’s learners and faculty, as well as registered health professionals throughout the region of Northern Ontario. It sponsors in-person and technologically mediated instruction on the latest health sciences resources and information technology, among other topics. The explicit aim is to further the practice of evidence-based medicine in the north, with special focus on the physicians, residents, nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and other health care professionals in northern and/or rural communities.

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The Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine is McMaster University’s medical school, located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. It is operated by the McMaster Faculty of Health Sciences. McMaster University’s medical school accepts 203 students per year out of over 5200 applicants into the MD program. It is one of two medical programs (along with the University of Calgary) in Canada that operates on an accelerated 3-year MD program, instead of the traditional 4-year MD Program.

Currently, McMaster ranks 25th in the world and 3rd in Canada for medicine according to the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2015.In 2012, McMaster ranked 1st in Canada and 14th worldwide in medicine, according to the Times Higher Education Rankings 2012.

Founded in 1965, the school is claimed to be a world leader in innovative learning, testing systems as well as multinational trials and thrombosis research.Since its formation, the school invented the small-group, case-based learning curriculum which is now known as PBL or problem-based learning. In addition, the school was the first in the world to institute a 3-year M.D. program in 1965, with classes being held year round. In the 1980s, McMaster developed and coined the term “evidence-based medicine” as a way to approach clinical problem solving. McMaster also developed the Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) system in 2001 for medical school admissions which has been adopted as part of the admissions system in professional schools around the world.

In 2010, McMaster developed the CASPer test for medical school admissions, which has recently been adopted at several medical schools across North America. Since then both MMI and CASPer have turned into for-profit companies owned by McMaster University and the original researchers, and given the conflict of interest by the University and the test creators, claims of efficacy of these tests must be viewed with caution until further independent research is conducted.

McMaster University had long been a target of proposals for a medical school. As early as 1892, Trinity Medical College in Toronto had sought affiliation with McMaster. In the 1930s, Dr. C.E. Cooper-Cole and Dr. Gordon Murray were invited to become the first professors of medicine and surgery at the university however the plans were later shelved.In 1956, Sir Francis R. Fraser, wrote the Fraser report and concluded that McMaster could feasibly host a medical school. At the same time, the Ontario government had expressed the opinion that Ontario would need an additional medical school by 1966. The main driving force behind the project was Harry Thode, at the time the vice president of the university and later, the president. By 1965, the first dean of the new medical school John Robert Evans, was appointed. By 1966, the first five faculty members, John Robert Evans, William Walsh, Bill Spaulding, James Anderson and Fraser Mustard were recruited.

The school is located at McMaster University’s main campus in Hamilton, Ontario, housed within the Michael G. DeGroote Centre for Learning and Discovery, a building built in 2004 and the adjacent Health Sciences Centre. The DeGroote facility is shared with the Centre for Function Genomics, Centre for Gene Therapeutics, Institute for Cancer and Stem Cell Biology Research, Robert E. Fitzhenry Vector Laboratory, Centre for Asthma and Allergy Research (Allergen) and North American Headquarters for West Nile studies, as well as the Bachelor of Health Sciences undergraduate program.

The medical school is a pioneer in its teaching and admissions philosophies through the Program for Educational Research and Development, renowned internationally for grounding educational practice in evidence.McMaster created a revolution in health care training by pioneering the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum, which has since influenced health care education worldwide. The instructional strategy focuses on student-driven learning, which occurs in groups, to foster critical thinking, higher retention, and stronger cognitive competencies including coping with uncertainty and communication skills. Most medical schools in Canada and more than 80% of medical schools in the United States now employ PBL in their curriculum, and many international universities are continuing to do to the same.

92% of McMaster graduates matched to a residency in position in 2014 which is above the national average of 90.8%.In addition, 58% matched to their first choice discipline and location.

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The Faculty of Medicine at Dalhousie University, also known as Dalhousie Medical School, is a Canadian medical school and faculty of Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

The Faculty of Medicine has operated continuously since 1868 and is one of the oldest medical schools in Canada, after Laval, McGill, and Queen’s.

The Faculty of Medicine was founded in 1868. The school’s main teaching location is the Sir Charles Tupper Medical Building which is a 15-story high-rise building that opened in 1965 on Dalhousie University’s Carleton Campus. Today, the Tupper Medical Building houses the administrative offices of the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Health Sciences, as well as the Kellogg Health Sciences Library, lecture theatres, a large cadaveric anatomy laboratory, and most of the basic science laboratories in the Faculty of Medicine.

It adjoins the CRC, the Clinical Research Centre, via “The Tupper Link” corridor, which is the location of many state-of the art lecture halls equipped with teleconferencing technology. The CRC houses the Dean of Medicine’s office as well as affiliated administrative offices.

The Faculty of Medicine is the only medical school in the Maritime Provinces and as such is closely affiliated with the healthcare systems operated by the Government of Nova Scotia, the Government of New Brunswick and the Government of Prince Edward Island. This region has a combined population of 1.8 million people with teaching hospitals located in various locations across the three provinces, as well as the Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre and IWK Health Centre (in Halifax) and the Saint John Regional Hospital in the immediate vicinity of the medical school’s 2 campuses.

The Doctor of Medicine program admits 108 students per year. Of these, 78 matriculants attend the Halifax Campus and 30 attend the New Brunswick campus in St John, New Brunswick. In 2010, the average undergraduate GPA of accepted applicants was 3.8, and 24 percent of the entering class held graduate degrees.

Dalhousie awards the MD degree to students completing “the Tupper Trail,” a new curriculum developed by the Faculty of Medicine.This program incorporates early exposure to clinical skills and clinical electives from Year 1, as well as collaboration projects with students in other health professions.

In 2010, it was reported that Dalhousie medical students placed first in Canada on the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination, the school-leaving exam written by all Canadian MD candidates.

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Faculty of Medicine – University of Manitoba is located in Winnipeg, Manitoba and part of the University of Manitoba. The University of Manitoba, Faculty of Medicine’s Arms were registered with the Canadian Heraldic Authority on August 15, 2008.

The Medical Corps Memorial was erected by the Manitoba Medical Alumni Association, dedicated to the memory of the graduates and students of the University of Manitoba Medical College; “In enduring remembrance of the Graduates and students of this school who laid down their lives in Wars of the Empire, their names are here inscribed by the Manitoba Medical Alumni Association 1885. North West Rebellion (one name/un nom) 1900 South African War (one name/un nom) 1914 – 1918 The Great War (seven names/sept noms).”

In 2009, there were 957 applicants for 110 MD spots.The average GPA was 4.16 (out of 4.5) and the MCAT average was 10.72 in 2009.

Faculty departments

-Anesthesia

-Biochemistry and Medical Genetics

-Cardiology

-Clinical Health Psychology

-Community Health Sciences

-J. A. Hildes Northern Medical Unit

-Continuing Professional Development

-Family Medicine

-Emergency Medicine

-Human Anatomy and Cell Science

-Immunology

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The UBC Faculty of Medicine is the medical school of the University of British Columbia, and is one of 17 medical schools in Canada and the only one in the province of British Columbia. It is Canada’s second-largest medical school and seventh-largest in North America.

The school had 677 full-time faculty members, 6,059 clinical faculty members, 1,146 MD undergraduate students, and 1,606 graduate students in 2013-14.

UBC admits one of the most 1st year medical students in Canada – at an annual rate of 288. Preference is given to residents of British Columbia, but up to 29 seats are reserved each year for out-of-province applicants. Like other medical schools in Canada, UBC does not have a preference over a candidate’s area of studies, and accepted students come from all backgrounds. A minimum of 90 university credits is required.

A minimum average of 75% (in UBC percentage) is required for BC residents, while a minimum average of 85% (in UBC percentage) is required for out-of-province applicants.However, the MD admissions office will remove up to 30 credits of an applicant’s worst academic year (running from September to August), provided that they still have 90 credits worth of grades for consideration after this adjustment. Applicants no longer must complete 6 credits each of Biology, General Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, and Biochemistry. In late January 2016, UBC Senate approved the plan of removing science prerequisites for MD Admissions. The requirement for 6 credits of English is still required.

The admissions process is competitive, and the average entering GPA of matriculants has steadily been increasing with each year. In the recent 2014-2015 cycle (Medicine Class of 2019), there were 2322 applications received for the 288 spots in the first year undergraduate medical program. The average overall GPA (or adjusted GPA, if applicable) was 88.14% for the entering class. The average MCAT score for the entering class was 33Q. The overall admissions rate was 12.4%, however, it was 17.6% for BC applicants.

For the current cycle (Medicine Class of 2020), there were 2124 applications received for the 288 spots.

The MD Undergraduate Admissions Committee currently applies a 50:50 ratio for the academic qualities score (AQ) and non-academic qualities score (NAQ), to produce a total file review score (TFR). The TFR determines if a candidate should be invited for an interview. The AQ and NAQ point allocation may be subject to change each year based on the competitiveness of the applicant pool. For example, if a re-applicant has made no changes to their GPA and non-academic statements, their AQ and NAQ score may still change, even if he/she had not made any changes – the evaluations are standardized against the applicant pool. Thus, the minimum TFR to be invited for an interview may also be subject to change each year. Based on past statistics, approximately 30% of all applicants (BC and out-of-province) are invited to the interview. The interview follows the Multiple Mini Interviews format (MMI), which allows the candidate to interact with approximately 11 different stations. The interview takes approximately 1 hour and 40 minutes to complete. After the interview, candidates will get a chance to rank their distributed medical site preferences from 1-4, or no-interest.

The post-interview score consists of the interview score, MCAT score, and TFR, in which candidates will be ranked. References are reviewed post-interview, with specific information provided when a candidate is invited for the interview. All aspects will determine if a candidate will be finally admitted into the MD program, with decisions made by Committee consensus.

All distributed medical sites are evaluated equally, as such, a candidate should not select a medical site in hopes of a better admission. This is a result of admissions and site placement being a two-step process.Candidates who are not successful with their application are allowed and encouraged to re-apply the following year. The candidate may apply as many times as they wish, however, the Faculty of Medicine recommends candidates to explore other career options if their applications have been unsuccessful after several cycles.

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The University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine was established in 1967 and renamed the Cumming School of Medicine in 2014. It is one of two medical schools in Alberta and one of 17 in Canada. The Faculty and medical school is linked to the hospitals in Alberta Health Services such as Foothills Medical Centre, Alberta Children’s Hospital, Rockyview General Hospital and Chinook Regional Hospital.

Trainees in faculty of medicine include 486 medical students (UME), 767 residents (PGME), 190 post doctoral fellows (PDF) and 491 graduate students. It is one of two 3 year medical schools, along with McMaster University Medical School, in Canada. In addition, the University of Calgary Cumming School of Medicine offers an undergraduate Bachelor of Health Sciences degree.

The Doctor of Medicine program was founded in 1970. It is one of two fully accredited medical schools in Canada that offers a three-year Doctor of Medicine program. The program is structured so that the pre-clerkship curriculum is taught year-round, without an extended summer break (as is common in 4-year MD programs). This structure allows the pre-clerkship portion of undergraduate medical education to be shortened in length, without limiting the breadth of medical knowledge required for students to be competent before entering the clerkship phase of the curriculum.

Thematic institutes were formed between Faculty of Medicine and the Calgary Health Region that support and fulfill the vision and mission of these two entities. Philosophically, institutes encompass activities in all three areas of education, research and care delivery.

Currently there are six Institutes identified as follows:

-Alberta Bone & Joint Health Institute

-Hotchkiss Brain Institute

-Calvin, Phoebe and Joan Snyder Institute of Infection, Immunity & Inflammation

-Institute of Maternal & Child Health

-Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta

-Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute

-Calgary Institute for Population and Public Health

The faculty is located on the Foothills Campus of the University of Calgary in the Health Sciences Centre. This facility is annexed to Foothills Medical Centre.

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The Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry at University of Alberta is located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Established in 1913, it is one of the oldest medical schools in Western Canada and is composed of 20 departments, two stand-alone divisions, 10 research groups, and 24 research centers and institutes.Educational, clinical and research activities are conducted in 28 buildings on or near the University of Alberta north campus.

The Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry is home to more than 2,000 support staff and 2,600 tenure-track and clinical educators,including six National 3M Teaching Fellows,Canada’s most prestigious teaching award for post-secondary instructors. According to an economic impact report conducted in 2013, the Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry generated approximately $2 billion to the Alberta economy in 2012.

The Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry offers four fully accredited undergraduate programs: doctor of medicine,doctor of dentistry,bachelor of science in medical laboratory science,and a diploma or bachelor of science in dental hygiene.

The bachelor of science in radiation therapy, established in 2013, will undergo accreditation review in fall 2016.It also offers more than 50 residency programs fully accredited by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and 20 graduate programs centered in the health sciences.

The Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry has more than 2,600 learners in its undergraduate, graduate, residency, and postdoctoral education programs and has graduated nearly 14,000 health professionals and researchers.